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Cyber Security Threat Trends of 2023: Analysis of the Last Six Months

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06
Feb 2024
06
Feb 2024
Darktrace's comprehensive report on the threats faced by businesses examines the trends our Threat Research team saw across our customer fleet in the second half of 2023.

Darktrace Threat Report

Darktrace’s distinctive approach to threat analysis yields us a unique perspective on the threat landscape. In our End of Year Threat Report, we built on the work of our First 6: Half-Year Threat Report, sharing the insights we've garnered throughout the latter half of 2023.  

We have observed not only the continuing development and evolution of identified threats in the malware and ransomware spaces, but also changes brought about by the innovation of cyber security tools.  

Amid these challenges, the breadth, scope, and complexity of threats to organizations has grown, underscoring the importance of employing behavioral analysis, anomaly detection, and AI for cyber security.  

Threat Research Across the Customer Fleet

Malware-as-a-Service (MaaS) and Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) together represent the majority of malicious tools across the cyber threat landscape and were the most consistently identified threats affecting Darktrace customers in the second half of 2023. These malicious tools have a variety of capabilities, with many including tailorable or bespoke elements alterable from campaign to campaign.  

Figure 1: The diagram represents Darktrace detections containing indicators of compromise (IoCs) that have been associated with particular MaaS and RaaS threats. The size of the bubble displayed relates to the frequency of detections observed across the Darktrace fleet.

The Darktrace Threat Research team found that within MaaS and RaaS offerings detected across the customer fleet, loader malware was the most observed threat category, accounting for 77% of all investigated threats.  

MaaS initial access offerings were often observed harvesting data, which could then be sold, and loading or enabling subsequent infections by second and third-stage payloads, resulting in more damaging malware attacks and even ransomware.

Similar to how the MaaS and RaaS tools were often customized in an attempt to land an attack, Darktrace observed the cross-functional adaptation of many other malware strains, such as remote access trojans (RATs) and information-stealing malware, along with existing tools like Cobalt Strike.  

The ability to remix known strains of malware can increase the difficulty of detection by combining kill chain elements and utilizing overlapping compromised infrastructure. Malware developers achieve this by using open-source repositories, leaked code, and multi-faceted tooling.

SOC Team Insights on Major Trends

The Darktrace Security Operations Center (SOC), which helps customers investigate threats, observed two significant trends in the second half of 2023.

1. Enhanced Defense Evasion Methods

Darktrace's SOC saw an increase in usage of a variety of defense evasion methods, such as the session cookie abuse to evade multi-factor authentication (MFA), the targeting of ESXi servers for ransomware encryption to evade host-based security measures, and the use of tunnelling services such as Cloudflare Tunnel to hide command-and-control (C2) infrastructure.  

Malicious actors' increased usage of these defense evasion methods is a probable result of prominence of endpoint solutions within the security industry.

2. Ransomware

Ransomware continued to be the most common compromise. Darktrace's SOC observed ransomware actors compromising Internet-facing servers, such as Exchange, Citrix Netscaler, Ivanti Sentry, Remote Desktop Services (RDS) hosts, VPN appliances, and Confluence, in order to gain entry to target networks. Once inside, ransomware actors abused Remote Monitoring and Management (RMM) tools such as Splashtop, Atera, AnyDesk, and Action1, to gain access to target systems.  

A variety of ransomware strains were observed, with LockBit, ALPHV (i.e, BlackCat), Play, and Akira being the most common.

Top Critical Vulnerabilities

New critical vulnerabilities (CVEs), like Log4J and ProxyLogon, regularly enter the public domain within a short time of discovery, meaning the average time to exploitation is shorter than ever. As such, organizations must be able to promptly identify whether they are susceptible to new vulnerabilities and understand mitigation techniques.  

In the second half of 2023, there were five major vulnerabilities observed by Darktrace across its customer fleet, as determined by the number of affected assets.

1. CVE-2022-42889 is a critical vulnerability in the Apache Commons Text Library which has been compared to Log4Shell, albeit not as widespread. Apache Commons Text performs variable interpolation, allowing properties to be dynamically evaluated and expanded. Affected versions are vulnerable to remote code execution or unintentional exposure to remote servers if untrusted configuration values are used.

2. CVE-2023-25690 is a critical vulnerability which enables HTTP request smuggling attacks on Apache HTTP Server. If exploited, it could be used by an attacker to bypass access constraints in proxy servers, route undesired URLs to existing origin servers and perform cache poisoning.

3. Two critical vulnerabilities were observed in Git that would enable attackers to execute arbitrary code after successfully exploiting heap-based buffer overflow weaknesses. CVE-2022-41903 would allow an attacker to trigger a heap-based memory corruption during clone or pull operations, resulting in remote code execution, while CVE-2022-23521 could enable code execution during an archive operation, which is commonly performed by Git forges.

4. CVE-2023-2982 is an authentication bypass vulnerability disclosed in miniOrange's Social Login and Register plugin for WordPress that could enable a malicious actor to log in as any user, provided that they know the corresponding email address.

5. CVE-2023-46747 is a critical vulnerability rooted in the configuration of BIG-IP that could result in unauthenticated remote code execution. This vulnerability allows malicious actors to gain unauthorized access to networks through the management port and/or self-IP addresses to execute arbitrary system commands.

Stay Ahead of Threats with AI-Powered Cyber Security

After tracking threat trends across its customer fleet in the second half of 2023, Darktrace found that MaaS like loader malware, ransomware and especially RaaS, and enhanced defense evasion methods were top threats.  

As threats continue to evolve, it’s more important than ever to have cyber security tools that can detect and respond in real time, even when dealing with remixed and novel attacks.  

Darktrace’s approach to cyber security allows it to do just that. The Darktrace platform uses AI that learns from each organization’s specific data to understand ‘normal’ in order to recognize activity that is abnormal and indicative of a cyber-attack.  

As a result, Darktrace can detect and respond to attacks, including customized strains of malware and ransomware, even if they have been altered from previously known instances. Since it is powered by AI, Darktrace can take action within seconds.

Darktrace can also help organizations address new CVEs. Darktrace/Newsroom, a capability included with Darktrace’s attack surface management (ASM) tool, continuously monitors open-source intelligence (OSINT) sources for new CVEs and assesses each organization’s exposure through its in-depth knowledge of the unique external attack surface. It then presents a detailed summary of the vulnerability, highlighting the affected software and how many assets run this software on the customer’s network.

With AI that is trained on your organization’s data, Darktrace protects against the trending threats of today and the emerging threats of tomorrow.  

Learn more about the latest threat trends in the full report

INSIDE THE SOC
Darktrace cyber analysts are world-class experts in threat intelligence, threat hunting and incident response, and provide 24/7 SOC support to thousands of Darktrace customers around the globe. Inside the SOC is exclusively authored by these experts, providing analysis of cyber incidents and threat trends, based on real-world experience in the field.
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Customer Blog: Community Housing Limited Enhancing Incident Response

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04
Mar 2024

About Community Housing Limited

Community Housing Limited is a non-profit organization based in Australia that focuses on providing affordable, long-term housing and creating employment opportunities where possible. We give people the security of having a home so that they can focus on other essential pathways. As such, we are responsible for sensitive information on our clients.

As part of our commitment to strengthening our cyber security, we sought to simplify and unify our incident response plans and equip our engineers and desktop support teams with all the information we need at our fingertips.

Why Community Housing Limited chose Darktrace

Our team hoped to achieve a response procedure that allowed us to have oversight over any potential security risks, even cases that don’t overtly seem like a security risk. For example, an incident could start as a payroll issue and end up in the hands of HR, instead of surfacing as a security problem. In this case, our security team has no way of knowing the real number of events or how the threat had actually started and played out, making incident response and mitigation even more challenging.

We were already a customer of Darktrace’s autonomous threat detection, attack intervention, and attack surface management capabilities, and decided to add Darktrace for AI-assisted incident response and AI cyber-attack simulation.

AI-generated playbooks save time during incident response

I wanted to reduce the time and resources it took our security team to appropriately respond to a threat. Darktrace automates several steps of the recovery process to accelerate the rate of incident response by using AI that learns the granular details of the specific organization, building a dynamic understanding of the devices, connections, and user behaviors that make up the normal “pattern of life.”  

The AI then uses this understanding to create bespoke, AI-generated incident response playbooks that leverage an evolving understanding of our organization to determine recovery steps that are tailored not only to the specific incident but also to our unique environment.

For my security team, this means having access to all the information we need to respond to a threat. When running through an incident, rather than going to different places to synthesize relevant information, which takes up valuable resources and time, we can speed up its remediation with Darktrace.  

The playbooks created by Darktrace help lower the technical skills required to respond to incidents by elevating the workload of the staff, tripling our capacity for incident response.

Realistic attack simulations upskill teams while saving resources

We have differing levels of experience on the team which means some members know exactly what to do during incident response while others are slower and need more guidance. Thus, we have to either outsource skilled security professionals or add a security solution that could lower the technical skills bar.

You don’t want to be second guessing and searching for the right move – it’s urgent – there should be certainty. Our goal with running attack simulations is to test and train our team's response capabilities in a “realistic” scenario. But this takes considerable time to plan and execute or can be expensive if outsourced, which can be a challenge for organizations short on resources. 

Darktrace provides AI-assisted incident response and cyber-attack simulation using AI that understands the organization to run simulations that effectively map onto the real digital environment and the assets within it, providing training for actual incidents.

It is one thing to sit together in a meeting and discuss various outcomes of a cyber-attack, talking through the best response strategies. It is a huge benefit being able to run attack simulations that emulate real-world scenarios.

Our team can now see how an incident would play out over several days to resemble a real-world scenario or it can play through the simulation quickly to ascertain outcomes immediately. It then uses these insights to strengthen its technology, processes, and training.

AI-Powered Incident Response

Darktrace helps my security team save resources and upskill staff using AI to generate bespoke playbooks and run realistic simulations. Its real-time understanding of our business ensures incident preparedness and incident response are tailored to not only the specific threat in question, but also to the contextual infrastructure of the organization.  

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Jamie Woodland
Head of Technology at Community Housing Limited

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Beyond DMARC: Navigating the Gaps in Email Security

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29
Feb 2024

Email threat landscape  

Email has consistently ranked among the most targeted attack vectors, given its ubiquity and criticality to business operations. From September to December 2023, 10.4 million phishing emails were detected across Darktrace’s customer fleet demonstrating the frequency of attempted email-based attacks.

Businesses are searching for ways to harden their email security posture alongside email providers who are aiming to reduce malicious emails traversing their infrastructure, affecting their clients. Domain-based Message Authentication (DMARC) is a useful industry-wide protocol organizations can leverage to move towards these goals.  

What is DMARC?

DMARC is an email authentication protocol designed to enhance the security of email communication.

Major email service providers Google and Yahoo recently made the protocol mandatory for bulk senders in an effort to make inboxes safer worldwide. The new requirements demonstrate an increasing need for a standardized solution as misconfigured or nonexistent authentication systems continue to allow threat actors to evade detection and leverage the legitimate reputation of third parties.  

DMARC is a powerful tool that allows email administrators to confidently identify and stop certain spoofed emails; however, more organizations must implement the standard for it to reach its full potential. The success and effectiveness of DMARC is dependent on broad adoption of the standard – by organizations of all sizes.  

How does DMARC work?

DMARC builds on two key authentication technologies, Sender Policy Framework (SPF) and DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) and helps to significantly improve their ability to prevent domain spoofing. SPF verifies that a sender’s IP address is authorized to send emails on behalf of a particular domain and DKIM ensures integrity of email content by providing a verifiable digital signature.  

DMARC adds to this by allowing domain owners to publish policies that set expectations for how SPF and DKIM verification checks relate to email addresses presented to users and whose authenticity the receiving mail server is looking to establish.  

These policies work in tandem to help authenticate email senders by verifying the emails are from the domain they say they are, working to prevent domain spoofing attacks. Key benefits of DMARC include:

  1. Phishing protection DMARC protects against direct domain spoofing in which a threat actor impersonates a legitimate domain, a common phishing technique threat actors use to trick employees to obtain sensitive information such as privileged credentials, bank information, etc.  
  2. Improving brand reputation: As DMARC helps to prevent impersonation of domains, it stands to maintain and increase an organization’s brand reputation. Additionally, as organizational reputation improves, so will the deliverability of emails.
  3. Increased visibility: DMARC provides enhanced visibility into email communication channels, including reports of all emails sent on behalf of your domain. This allows security teams to identify shadow-IT and any unauthorized parties using their domain.

Understanding DMARC’s Limitations

DMARC is often positioned as a way for organizations to ‘solve’ their email security problems, however, 65% of the phishing emails observed by Darktrace successfully passed DMARC verification, indicating that a significant number of threat actors are capable of manipulating email security and authentication systems in their exploits. While DMARC is a valuable tool in the fight against email-based attacks, the evolving threat landscape demands a closer look at its limitations.  

As threat actors continue to innovate, improving their stealth and evasion tactics, the number of attacks with valid DMARC authentication will only continue to increase in volume and sophistication. These can include:

  1. Phishing attacks that leverage non-spoofed domains: DMARC allows an organization to protect the domains that they own, preventing threat actors from being able to send phishing emails from their domains. However, threat actors will often create and use ‘look-a-like’ domains that closely resemble an organization’s domain to dupe users. 3% of the phishing emails identified by Darktrace utilized newly created domains, demonstrating shifting tactics.  
  2. Email Account Takeovers: If a threat actor gains access to a user’s email account through other social engineering means such as credential stuffing, they can then send phishing emails from the legitimate domain to pursue further attacks. Even though these emails are malicious, DMARC would not identify them as such because they are coming from an authorized domain or sender.  

Organizations must also ensure their inbound analysis of emails is not skewed by successful DMARC authentication. Security teams cannot inherently trust emails that pass DMARC, because the source cannot always be legitimized, like in the event of an account takeover. If a threat actor gains access to an authenticated email account, emails sent by the threat actor from that account will pass DMARC – however the contents of that email may be malicious. Sender behavior must be continuously evaluated and vetted in real time as past communication history and validated DMARC cannot be solely relied upon amid an ever-changing threat landscape.  

Security teams should lean on other security measures, such as anomaly detection tools that can identify suspicious emails without relying on historical attack rules and static data. While DMARC is not a silver bullet for email security, it is nevertheless foundational in helping organizations protect their brand identity and must be viewed as an essential layer in an organization's overall cyber security strategy.  

Implementing DMARC

Despite the criticality of DMARC for preserving brand reputation and trust, adoption of the standard has been inconsistent. DMARC can be complex to implement with many organizations lacking the time required to understand and successfully implement the standard. Because of this, DMARC set-up is often outsourced, giving security and infrastructure teams little to no visibility into or control of the process.  

Implementation of DMARC is only the start of this process, as DMARC reports must be consistently monitored to ensure organizations have visibility into who is sending mail from their domain, the volume of mail being sent and whether the mail is passing authentication protocols. This process can be time consuming for security teams who are already faced with mounting responsibilities, tight budgets, and personnel shortages. These complexities unfortunately delay organizations from using DMARC – especially as many today still view it as a ‘nice to have’ rather than an essential.  

With the potential complexities of the DMARC implementation process, there are many ways security and infrastructure teams can still successfully roll out the standard. Initial implementation should start with monitoring, policy adjustment and then enforcement. As business changes over time, DMARC should be reviewed regularly to ensure ongoing protection and maintain domain reputation.

The Future of Email Security

As email-based attacks continue to rise, the industry must recognize the importance of driving adoption of foundational email authentication protocols. To do this, a new and innovative approach to DMARC is needed. DMARC products must evolve to better support organizations throughout the ongoing DMARC monitoring process, rather than just initial implementation. These products must also be able to share intelligence across an organization’s security stack, extending beyond email security tools. Integration across these products and tools will help organizations optimize their posture, ensuring deep understanding of their domain and increased visibility across the entire enterprise.

DMARC is critical in protecting brand identity and mitigating exact-domain based attacks. However, organizations must understand DMARC’s unique benefits and limitations to ensure their inboxes are fully protected. In today’s evolving threat landscape, organizations require a robust, multi-layered approach to stop email threats – in inbound mail and beyond. Email threats have evolved – its time security does too.

Join Darktrace on 9 April for a virtual event to explore the latest innovations needed to get ahead of the rapidly evolving threat landscape. Register today to hear more about our latest innovations coming to Darktrace’s offerings. For additional insights check out Darktrace’s 2023 End of Year Threat Report.

Credit to Carlos Gray and Stephen Pickman for their contribution to this blog

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About the author
Carlos Gray
Product Manager

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